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Antibacterial drugs

Noticias y Novedades.

Antibacterial drugs

Notapor Newrich » Mié Abr 24, 2019 11:19 pm

Antibiotics or antibacterial drugs - the name of a group of drugs that are used in the treatment of diseases caused by microorganisms. Their discovery occurred in the 20th century and became a real sensation. Antimicrobial agents were considered a panacea for all known infections, a miracle cure for the terrible diseases that humanity has been exposed to for thousands of years. Due to its high efficiency, antibacterial agents are still widely used in medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. Their appointment has become so familiar that many people buy over-the-counter antibiotics on their own at a pharmacy without waiting for a doctor's recommendation. But we must not forget that their reception is accompanied by a number of features that affect the outcome of treatment and human health. What you should definitely know before consuming antibiotics, as well as the features of treatment with this group of drugs, will be discussed in more detail in this article.

Antibiotics - what is it?

Antibiotics are special substances that selectively affect certain microorganisms, inhibiting their livelihoods. Their main task is to suspend the reproduction of bacteria and their gradual destruction. It is realized due to the violation of the synthesis of malicious DNA.

There are several types of effects that can have antibacterial agents: bacteriostatic and bactericidal.

Bactericidal action. It testifies to the ability of drugs to damage the cell membrane of bacteria and cause their death. The bactericidal mechanism of action is characteristic of Clabax, Sumamed, Isofra, Cifran and other similar antibiotics.

Bacteriostatic action. It is based on the inhibition of protein synthesis, the suppression of reproduction of microorganisms and is used in the treatment and prevention of infectious complications. Unidox Solutab, Doxycycline, Tetracycline hydrochloride, Biseptol, etc., have a bacteriostatic effect.

Ideally, antibiotics block the vital functions of harmful cells without adversely affecting the cells of the host organism. This is facilitated by the unique property of this group of drugs - selective toxicity. Due to the vulnerability of the bacterial cell wall, substances that interfere with its synthesis or integrity are toxic to microorganisms, but harmless to the cells of the host body. The exception is potent antibiotics, the use of which is accompanied by side reactions.

In order to get only the positive effect of treatment, antibacterial therapy should be based on the following principles:

1. The principle of rationality. A key role in the treatment of an infectious disease is played by the correct identification of a microorganism; therefore, in no case should an antibacterial drug be chosen independently. Consult a doctor. A medical specialist will determine the type of bacteria and assign you a highly specialized medicine based on the tests and personal examination.

2. The principle of "umbrella". It is used in the absence of identification of the microorganism. The patient is prescribed a broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs that are effective against most of the most likely pathogens. In this case, the most optimal is combination therapy, which reduces the risk of the development of microbial resistance to an antibacterial agent.

3. The principle of individualization. When prescribing antibiotic therapy, it is necessary to take into account all factors related to the patient: his age, sex, localization of infection, the presence of pregnancy, and other associated diseases. It is equally important to choose the optimal route of administration of the drug for a timely and effective result. It is believed that oral medication is acceptable in moderate infections, and parenteral administration is optimal in extreme cases and in acute infectious diseases.

Should children treat with antibiotics?

According to the latest statistics in the United States and Europe, 70–85% of children suffering from viral diseases receive antibiotics because of non-professional treatment. Despite the fact that taking antibacterial drugs contributes to the development of bronchial asthma, these drugs are the most "popular" method of treatment. Therefore, parents should be attentive at the doctor's office and ask the specialist questions if you have doubts about the appointment of antibacterial agents to the child. You yourself must understand that a pediatrician, prescribing a long list of medications for a baby, protects only himself, insures against the occurrence of complications, etc. After all, if the child becomes worse, then the responsibility for the fact that "not cured" or "poorly treated" falls on the doctor.

Unfortunately, this model of behavior is increasingly common among domestic doctors who are trying not to cure the child, but to “heal” him. Be careful and remember that antibiotics are prescribed only for the treatment of bacterial and not viral diseases. You should know that only you care about the health of your child. After a week or a month, when you come back to the reception with another disease that arose against the background of a weakened previous “treatment” of immunity, doctors will only indifferently meet you and reappoint a long list of medicines.

Antibiotics: good or bad?

The belief that antibiotics are extremely harmful to human health is not without meaning. But it is valid only in the case of improper treatment, when there is no need to prescribe antibacterial drugs. Despite the fact that this group of drugs is now in free admission, without any prescription through the pharmacy chain, in no case can you take antibiotics on your own or at your own discretion. They can be prescribed only by a doctor in case of a serious bacterial infection.

If there is a serious disease that is accompanied by fever and other symptoms confirming the severity of the disease, it is impossible to delay or refuse antibiotics, referring to the fact that they are harmful. In many cases, antibacterial agents save a person’s life, prevent the development of serious complications. The main thing - to approach the treatment of antibiotics wisely.

Below is a list of popular antibacterial agents, instructions for which are presented on our website. Just follow the link in the list for instructions and recommendations on the use of this drug.

Antibacterial best drugs: a list

1. Zithromax
2. Azithromycin
3. Doxycycline
4. Erythromycin
5. Cipro

What is Zithromax?

Zithromax belongs to the group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, a representative of a new subgroup of macrolide antibiotics. When creating in the focus of inflammation of high concentrations has a bactericidal effect.

Gram-positive cocci are sensitive to Citromax: Streptococcus pneumoniae, St. pyogenes, St. agalactiae, streptococcus groups CF and G, Staphylococcus aureus, St. viridans; Gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, Legionella pneumophila, H. ducrei, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Gardnerella vaginalis; Some anaerobic microorganisms: Bacteroides bivius, Clostridium perfringens, Peptostreptococcus spp; as well as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdoferi. Azithromycin is inactive against gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to erythromycin.

Indications for use Zithromax

Infectious diseases caused by pathogens sensitive to the drug: infections of the upper respiratory tract and upper respiratory tract - tonsillitis, sinusitis (inflammation of the paranasal sinuses), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils / glands), otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear); scarlet fever; lower respiratory tract infections - bacterial and atypical pneumonia (pneumonia), bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi); infections of the skin and soft tissues - impetigo (superficial pustular skin lesions with the formation of purulent crusts), secondarily infected dermatosis (skin diseases); urinary tract infections - gonorrheal and non-urethral urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and / or cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix); Lyme disease (borreliosis - an infectious disease caused by the spirochaete Borrelia).

What is Azithromycin?

Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. This tool is an excellent and effective tool against most pathogens. The drug is available in a variety of dosage forms, which ensures its ease of use.

The action of the drug is aimed at treating inflammatory processes and infections, which appeared due to pathogens that are highly sensitive to azithromycin. Azithromycin is not effective against erythrimycin-resistant bacteria.

Once in the body, the antibiotic creates a high concentration of azithromycin in the focus of the inflammatory process. The active substance is azithromycin dihydrate.

The drug is very rapidly absorbed and easily penetrates into tissues, body fluids, urogenital organs, respiratory tract and skin.

The maximum concentration of the drug occurs 2 hours after administration. The concentration of the substance for the destruction of bacteria is maintained for 5-7 days after the end of the reception.

60% of the drug is eliminated from the body along with bile, another 5% is excreted in the urine.

Tetracycline antibiotics, which include Doxycycline, have a wide spectrum of action. This semisynthetic antibiotic has a bacteriostatic effect on microorganisms - inhibits the ability of microbes to multiply in the body. The antibiotic penetrates the cells of microorganisms and blocks the synthesis of proteins there.

What is Doxycycline?

Doxycycline has an effect on a large number of microbes - causative agents of aerobic (requiring oxygen for development) and anaerobic (they can develop without oxygen) infections.

Streptococci and staphylococci, E. coli and salmonella, dysenteric bacillus, klebsiella and clostridia, pathogens of especially dangerous infections (cholera, plague, anthrax, tularemia), sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, gonorrhema, fevers, fevers, syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, anthrax and tularemia), sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, anthrax and tularemia), sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, syphilis, syphilis, and Plasmodium and other pathogens.

A wide range of action of the drug is particularly important in cases where the causative agent of the disease could not be established for one reason or another. And some diseases, such as pneumonia, can be caused by various microorganisms.

Doxycycline has no effect on fungi and viruses.

What is Erythromycin?

Erythromycin belongs to the class of macrolides. It is a reserve drug for the treatment of patients with penicillin intolerance, since it has a similar spectrum of activity.

The antibiotic can irreversibly bind to microbial 5OS ribosomal subunits, interfering with the process of translocation and disrupting peptide bonds between bacterial amino acids, exhibiting a bacteriostatic action. It has good tolerance and low incidence of adverse events.

It is able to be effectively absorbed by oral administration, however, food intake sharply reduces the rate of its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Biotransformed in the liver, therefore, when prescribing to patients of advanced age or patients with liver diseases, dose adjustment may be required.

Therapeutic antimicrobial concentration is reached within two to three hours when taking pills, and within twenty minutes when administered intravenously.

What is Cipro?

Cipro is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin stops the proliferation of bacteria by inhibiting reproduction and changes their genetics. The FDA approved ciprofloxacin in October 1987.

Indications for use

Respiratory tract infections.

The use of ciprofloxacin is indicated for the so-called difficult pathogens (for example, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Legionella, Staphylococcus, Escherichia coli).

Infections of the middle ear, paranasal sinuses, especially if they are caused by gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas, or Staphylococcus.

Infections of the eye, kidney and / or urinary tract, genitals, including inflammation of the appendages, gonorrhea, prostatitis; infections of the abdominal cavity (for example, bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract, peritonitis), skin and soft tissues, bones and joints (for example, osteomyelitis), sepsis.

Treatment and prevention of threatening infections in patients with impaired protective functions of the body, for example, against the background of treatment with immunosuppressive agents or in patients with neutropenia.

Selective bowel decontamination in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment.
Newrich
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